PENDUGAAN KOMPONEN GENETIK POPULASI TETUA DAN ANALISIS HETEROSIS PADA JAGUNG MANIS BIJI KUNING KISUT

0414011019, Cipta Arief Martyadi (2012) PENDUGAAN KOMPONEN GENETIK POPULASI TETUA DAN ANALISIS HETEROSIS PADA JAGUNG MANIS BIJI KUNING KISUT. UNSPECIFIED.

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4-- ABSTRAK BAHASA.pdf

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Abstrak

Abstrak Pemuliaan tanaman berkaitan erat dengan proses seleksi. Komponen genetik (keragaman genetik dan heritabilitas) dibutuhkan agar seleksi dapat dilakukan secara efektif dan efisien. Ragam genetik menentukan keberhasilan seleksi, sedangkan heritabilitas menduga kemajuan pewarisan sifat unggul dari tetua ke zuriatnya. Selain itu, penyeleksian dilakukan dengan menyesuaikan karakter seleksi terhadap selera konsumen untuk tujuan komersialisasi benih. Hasil persilangan dari varietas-varietas yang telah diseleksi merupakan benih tanaman dengan keragaan yang akan lebih baik disebabkan efek heterosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengetahui perbedaan kultivar pada beberapa peubah vegetatif dan generatif pada tetua, serta kesesuaiannya dengan standard komersial; (2) menduga besarnya ragam genetik dan heritabilitas broad-sense pada tiga tetua jagung manis; dan (3) menduga heterosis yang terjadi untuk peubah yang diamati pada zuriat dibandingkan dengan tetuanya.Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Politeknik Negeri Lampung, sejak bulan September 2009 hingga Januari 2010. Penelitian dilakukan dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) non faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Tetua sebagai perlakuan terdiri atas (1) LASS dwiwarna; (2) LASS Kuki; dan (3) LAS Kuki. Data diambil dari karakter vegetatif: tinggi tanaman, posisi tongkol relatif, dan jumlah daun. Data karakter generatif: jumlah malai, diameter tongkol, jumlah baris biji, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa. Data dianalisis ragam, dan tetua diringkat berdasarkan uji BNJ 5 %. Ragam genetik (σ broad-sense (h 2 BS ), dan koefisien keragaman genetik (KKg) dianalisis menggunakan model matematika Hallauer dan Miranda. 2 g), heritabilitas Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) varietas tetua tidak memiliki perbedaan pada peubah tinggi tanaman, posisi tongkol relatif, jumlah daun, jumlah malai, diameter tongkol, jumlah baris biji, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa. Jumlah malai, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa sudah sesuai dengan standard komersial; (2) ragam genetik dan heritabilitas broad-sense tidak berbeda dari nol pada peubah tinggi tanaman, posisi tongkol relatif, jumlah daun, jumlah malai, diameter tongkol, jumlah baris biji, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa; serta (3) heterosis high parent terpenuhi pada peubah jumlah daun, jumlah malai, diameter tongkol, jumlah baris biji, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa; panjang tongkol dan kadar sukrosa zuriat sudah sesuai dengan standard komersial. Abstract The plant breeding is closely related to selection process. The genetic component (genetic variance and heritability) is required for effective and efficient selection. The genetic variance determines the selection success, while heritability infers the advance of superior character inheritance from parental to descent. Besides, selection is conducted corresponding to selection characteristics based on consumer’s favor for the seed commercialization. The crossing results from selected cultivars are plant seed with better profile because of heterosis effect. This research intended to: (1) identify the difference of the vegetative and generative characters among the parental cultivars of sweet maize, as compared to a commercial standard; (2) observe the genetic variance and broad-sense heritability on three parental cultivars of sweet maize; and (3) estimate the presence of heterosis on Yellow-shrunken-seed progeny.The research was accomplished at the Politeknik Negeri Lampung Research Station in September 2009 to January 2010. The research used Randomized Complete-Block Design (RCBD) non factorial with three replications. Parental cultivars as treatment were consisting of (1) LASS bicolor; (2) LASS Yellow- shrunken; and (3) LAS Yellow-shrunken. Data taken for the vegetative characters were plant height, ear position, and leaf number. Data for generative characters were tassel number, ear diameter, seed row number, ear length, and sucrose content. Data were analyzed for variances, and parental cultivars were ranked using Tukey HSD 5 %. Genetic variability (σ 2 g), broad-sense heritability (h and genetic coefficient of variance (CVg) were analyzed by using a mathematical model developed by Hallauer and Miranda. The heterosis was estimated by using a box plot analysis. The results show that (1) parental cultivars have no differences in variables such as plant height, ear position, leaf number, tassel number, ear diameter, seed row number, ear length, and sucrose content. The tassel number, ear length, and sucrose content have complied with commercial standards; (2) the genetic variance and broad-sense heritability equals to zero in variables of plant height, ear position, leaf number, tassel number, ear diameter, seed row number, ear length, and sucrose content; and (3) high parent heterosis is fulfilled in variables such as leaf number, tassel number, ear diameter, seed row number, ear length, and sucrose content; the ear length and sucrose content in descent have complied with commercial standards. 2 BS ),

Tipe Karya Ilmiah: Skripsi
Subyek: A General Works = Karya Karya Umum
Program Studi: Fakultas Pertanian
Depositing User: IC-STAR . 2015
Date Deposited: 25 Aug 2015 07:17
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2015 07:35
URI: http://digilib.unila.ac.id/id/eprint/12052

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