PENDUGAAN RAGAM GENETIK DAN HERITABILITAS BEBERAPA KARAKTER VEGETATIF DAN HASIL EMPAT LINI TETUA JAGUNG MANIS

NN, Reisha Ayu Puspita (2012) PENDUGAAN RAGAM GENETIK DAN HERITABILITAS BEBERAPA KARAKTER VEGETATIF DAN HASIL EMPAT LINI TETUA JAGUNG MANIS. Digital Library.

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Abstrak

Abstrak Pemuliaan tanaman melalui seleksi pada suatu populasi akan berhasil bila keragaman genetik dan heritabilitas tinggi. Ragam genetik diperlukan untuk menjamin keberhasilan seleksi sedangkan heritabilitas mengukur kemajuan pewarisan sifat karakter unggul dari tetua ke zuriatnya. Pada jagung manis tipe segregasi biji bulat, karakter vegetatif dan hasil diharapkan sebaik jagung tetua nirmanis dengan tetap mengekspresikan rasa manis pada karakter hasil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) mengetahui perbedaan karakter-karakter vegetatif dan hasil di antara keempat lini tetua jagung manis dan disesuaikan dengan standar komersial; (2) mengetahui besar ragam genetik dan heritabilitas broad sense empat lini tetua jagung manis; (3) mendapatkan epistasis alel manis dalam bentuk biji bulat yang bersegregasi pada sebaran 12 bulat : 4 kisut dan 9 bulat : 7 kisut; dan (4) mendapatkan sebaran segregasi genetik 9 kuning bulat : 3 kuning kisut : 3 putih bulat : 1 putih kisut untuk kultivar Dwiwarna. Reisha Ayu Puspita Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Politeknik Negeri Lampung pada bulan September 2009 sampai Januari 2010. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Kelompok Teracak Lengkap (RKTL) non faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. lini tetua sebagai perlakuan terdiri atas (1) LASS KuBu; (2) LASS Kuki; (3) LAW puBu; dan (4) LASS Dwiwarna. Data diambil dari karakter vegetatif: tinggi tanaman, tinggi tongkol relatif, dan jumlah daun. Data karakter hasil: jumlah malai, jumlah bunga betina, jumlah tongkol, diameter tongkol, panjang tongkol, dan kadar sukrosa. Data dianalisis ragam, dan pemeringkatan lini tetua berdasarkan uji BNJ 5 %. Ragam genetik (σ2g), heritabilitas broad sense (h2BS), dan koefisien keragaman genetik (KKg) dianalisis menggunakan model matematika Hallauer dan Miranda. Segregasi bentuk biji diuji dengan uji goodness of fit chi-squared (χ2). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) keempat lini tetua jagung manis berbeda karakter vegetatif: tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun, serta karakter hasil: diameter tongkol dan panjang tongkol. Tinggi tanaman dan tinggi tongkol relatif belum mampu memenuhi standar komersial; (2) ragam genetik dan heritabilitas broad sense berbeda dari nol untuk tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, diameter tongkol, dan panjang tongkol; (3) penyerbukan self-1 pada LASS KuBu mengalami epistasis pada sebaran 12 bulat : 4 kisut; lini LASS KuBu, LASS Kuki, dan LASS Dwiwarna berperan sebagai penghasil biji kisut (jagung manis true type); (4) penyerbukan self-1 pada LAW puBu (tercampur dengan LASS Dwiwarnasegregan kuning muda bulat) tidak mampu memenuhi nisbah sebaran biji 9:3:3:1 dan penyerbukan self-1 pada LASS Dwiwarna menghasilkan sebaran biji dengan nisbah 9:3:3:1. Abstract A plant breeding through selection on a population will be successful when the genetic variability is high. Genetic variability is needed to ensure a success while heritability measures the ability of the parents to pass superior characters onto progeny. In sweet maize, round seed (segregation) type will segregate for vegetative and yield characters like non-sweet parents while expressing a sweet taste as the character of the yield. The aim of this research were to (1 ) identify the difference of the vegetative and yield characters among the four parental lines of sweet maize as compared to a commercial standard; (2) identify the magnitude of genetic variability and broad-sense heritability indicated in the four parental lines of sweet maize; (3) acquire epistasis on alleles controlling the sweetness in the form of round seeds segregate ratio of 12 round: 4 wrinkle and 9 round: 7 wrinkle; and (4) acquire a segregation ratio of 9 Yellow-Round: 3 Yellow-wrinkle: 3 white-Round: 1 whitewrinkle for a Two-color cultivar. Reisha Ayu Puspita The research was accomplished at the Politeknik Negeri Lampung Research Station in September 2009 to January 2010. The research used Randomized Complete-Block Design (RCBD) non factorial with three replications. Parental lines as treatment were consisting of (1) LASS Yellow-Round; (2) LASS Yellowwrinkle; (3) LASS white-Round; and (4) LASS Two-Color. Data taken for the vegetative characters were plant height, ear height, and leaf number. Data for yield characters were panicle number, female flower number, ear number, ear diameter, ear length, seed row number, and sucrose content. Data were analyzed for variances, and parental lines were ranked using Tukey's HSD 5 %. Genetic variability (σ2g), broad-sense heritability (h2BS), and genetic coefficient of variance (CVg) were analyzed by using a mathematical model of Hallauer and Miranda. The segregate on of seed shapes was analyzed with a goodness of fit χ2 test. The research results showed that (1) the four parental lines differed in vegetative characters: plant height and leaves number; and the yield characters: ear diameter and ear length; (2) the genetic variability and broad sense heritability were different from zero for: plant height, leaf number, ear diameter, and ear length; (3) the ears segregated in their seeds following epistasis in the ratio of 12:4 were obtained in the LASS Yellow-Round self-1. Lines of LASS Yellow-Round, LASS Yellow-wrinkle, and LASS Two-color were important as wrinkle-seed producer (true type sweet maize); and (4) the ear segregated in their seeds following epistasis in the ratio of 9:3:3:1 were obtained in the LASS TwoColor self-1.

Tipe Karya Ilmiah: Artikel
Subyek: A General Works = Karya Karya Umum
Program Studi: FKIP > Prodi Pendidikan Jasmani, Kesehatan dan Rekreasi
Depositing User: tik9 . Digilib
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2016 13:04
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2016 13:04
URI: http://digilib.unila.ac.id/id/eprint/20033

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