Penerapan Precautionary Principle terhadap Pemanfaatan Genetically Modified Organisms Menurut Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety dan the Sanitary and Phytosantary Agreement

Orima Melati Davey, 1412011330 (2018) Penerapan Precautionary Principle terhadap Pemanfaatan Genetically Modified Organisms Menurut Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety dan the Sanitary and Phytosantary Agreement. UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG, FAKULTAS HUKUM .

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Abstrak

Dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya, manusia menerapkan bioteknologi pada seluruh bidang kehidupan. Bioteknologi tradisional telah berkembang menjadi bioteknologi moderen melalui rekayasa genetik. Saat ini, produk rekayasa genetik disebut Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) yang berada dibawah regulasi Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB). Akan tetapi, pemanfaatan GMO menjadi masalah saat produk GMO diberlakukan secara komersil dibawah regulasi the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. Negara-negara merasa bahwa SPS Agreement tidak memiliki standar sesuai dengan yang ditetapkan CPB terkait produk GMO. Precautionary principle (PP) hadir sebagai relasi antara SPS Agreement dengan CPB yang bertujuan untuk meminimalkan risiko terhadap kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan. Namun, hingga kini masih banyak negara yang belum mendukung pemanfaatan GMO secara komersil. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk memahami penerapan PP oleh negara-negara terhadap pemanfaatan GMO sesuai pengaturan CPB dan SPS Agreement serta implementasinya di Indonesia. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian hukum normatif dengan sumber data sekunder dan terdiri dari bahan hukum primer, sekunder, tersier serta menggunakan teknik studi kepustakaaan sebagai metode pengumpulan data. Pengolahan data dari penelitian ini adalah melalui perbandingan hukum antar negara-negara untuk mendapatkan perbandingan penerapan precautionary principle. Pengaturan GMO oleh CPB terdiri dari beberapa peraturan mengenai ekspor impor yaitu Advanced Informed Agreement, Prosedur Pemanfaatan Langsung GMO, Biosafety Clearing House, Export Documentation, serta risk assessment and management. Sedangkan SPS Agreement memiliki standarisasi terhadap GMO yang diatur dalam Codex Alimentarius, World Organization for Animal Health, dan International Plant Protection Convention. PP diterapkan dengan mengimplementasikan prinsip tersebut dalam hukum nasional masing-masing negara. Di Indonesia, implementasi precautionary principle terhadap pemanfaatan GMO direalisasikan melalui sinkronisasi antar setiap regulasi yang berkaitan dengan produk rekayasa genetik atau GMO mengenai peran Komisi Keamanan Hayati Produk Rekayasa Genetik (KKH PRG) yang diatur dalam Peraturan Presiden No. 39 Tahun 2010 tentang Komisi Keamanan Hayati Produk Rekayasa Genetik Panga n. Kata Kunci: Precautionary Principle, Genetically Modified Organisms, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, SPS Agreement. abstract As a framework of human life quality augmentation, biotechnology has been adapted into all living aspect of mankind. Traditional biotechnology such has evolved into a modern way of using genetically engineered (GE) substance. Those products of GE are called the Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) under the regulations of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB). It became a problem when GMO are commercialized below the regulation of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. Nations do not trust the resemblance of SPS Agreement standard with the CPB regarding to GMO products. The Precautionary Principle (PP) came through as a link between SPS Agreement and CPB with the goal of minimizing human health and environmental risks. Despite of that, there are still most nations who prohibit the cultivation of GMO benefits commercially. Hence, the purpose of this research is to understand the implementation of PP by the nations regarding to the benefits of GMO according to CPB and SPS Agreement and the establishment in Indonesia. This research uses the normative legal research with secondary type sources consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary material of legal source. The collecting method of the research data is through literature-study techniques. Afterwards, the providing data would be process by a law comparison among countries to have a proportion of precautionary principle adoptions. GMO regulations under the CPB requires on export-import mechanisms which are divided into four regulations; Advanced Informed Agreement, Simple System of Agriculture Commodity, Biosafety Clearing House, Export Documentation, and risk assessment and management. In the other hand, SPS Agreement regulates the needed standards for GMO products that are Codex Alimentarius, World Organization for Animal Health, and International Plant Protection Convention. As for implementing PP, nations implement by adopting through their national law. In Indonesia, the implementation of precautionary principle can be seen through the synchronization among Genetically Modified Organisms’ regulations that relates to the Biosafety Security Commission which is regulated in the President Regulation No. 39 Year 2010 regarding to the Biosafety Security Commission. Key Words: Precautionary Principle, Genetically Modified Organisms, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, SPS Agreement.

Tipe Karya Ilmiah: Skripsi
Subyek: J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
J Political Science > JX International law
Program Studi: Fakultas Hukum > Prodi Ilmu Hukum S1
Depositing User: 201890661 . Digilib
Date Deposited: 30 Apr 2018 04:54
Last Modified: 30 Apr 2018 04:54
URI: http://digilib.unila.ac.id/id/eprint/31347

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